INTENTIONAL SELF - HARM AND PERSONALITY TRAITS USING BIG FIVE FACTOR MODEL IN PATIENTS PRESENTING TO A TERTIARY LEVEL HOSPITAL
Suicide is an important, largely preventable public health problem. Unfortunately, the occurrence of suicide and suicidal behavior has been increasing dramatically. Recent research efforts have yielded valuable cross-national data on the prevalence, age-of-onset, course, risk factors of suicidal behaviors around the globe. There is a growing recognition that the extent of personality traits is important risk factor for intentional self- harm.
The aim of the study was to assess the personality traits in patients presenting with intentional self- harm at a tertiary level hospital using big five factor model and to find the modes and intent of the self- harm and their relationship with personality traits.
A cross sectional study was conducted among Intentional self-harm patients presenting to tertiary hospital emergency department and seeking psychiatric consultation.Using purposive sampling, 97 patients who met inclusion criteria and gave consent during 6 months period were included in the study.Sociodemographic information was collected using the self- designed semi-structured proforma and detailed history was taken.The tools suicide intent scale and five factor model rating form were administered to the patients. All subjects included in study were assessed and treated if needed by consultant psychiatrists.Finally, information obtained was analyzed by using suitable statistical tool.
Out of 97 patients most of the participants scored median score of 4 (high) in anger hostility, self- consciousness , impulsivity and altruism traits while in other traits they score neutral score, which concluded that patients who presented with intentional self –harm were more bitter, short-tempered, timid, impulsive and sacrificial. The study showed that the relation of certain traits like anxiousness, impulsivity, vulnerability, gregariousness, ideas, trust, straightforwardness, altruism, competence, order and SIS grading was statistically significant (p=<0.05). In the study it was found that the participants who hanged themselves were more hostile, self- conscious, impulsive, affectionate, sacrificial , straight- forward and more compliant, while the participants who took poison as mode of self- harm were found to be more hostile, self-conscious, impulsive, affectionate, outgoing, altruistic and cooperative. Participants who used sharp- object (blades, knife, glasschip) as mode of intentional self-harm were found to be more impulsive, affectionate, dreamer, aesthetic, sacrifical and more devoted and the participants who used solvent ( nail polish remover, phenol) as mode of intentional self- harm were found to be more impulsive, affectionate, sacrificial.
Our findings suggest that patients who presented with intentional self –harm were more bitter, short –tempered, timid, impulsive and sacrificial. Another significant finding in the study is that nearly 86% of the participants with intentional self-harm has one or the other psychiatric disorders.
Author: Dr. Sreya Paudyal